What does 00, 0, 1 or 2 type flour mean? What are the differences between the different types of flour? It would take a little awareness of what you buy and what you eat every day, and you should be able to understand that even if something has always been eaten for generations it does not necessarily mean that it is the best, such as the flour 0 and 00. Flour is obviously the product that is obtained from the grinding of cereals or other products and there are different types that can be distinguished first and foremost for the grain size, therefore the size of the "grains" and for the nutritional contents: starch, proteins, minerals and dietary fiber and therefore also for the different nutritional and technological quality. The visual characteristics are also different, the 00 flour is white while the other flours have a gradually darker color.
Let's try to clarify and understand what actually distinguishes 00 flour from type 2 flour.
Flour 00: This is the most refined flour ever obtained through modern grinding with steel cylinders. In this flour all the best parts of the wheat are eliminated nutritionally. In 00 flour, in fact, bran, rich in fiber and wheat germ, rich in vitamins, mineral salts and amino acids, are eliminated, all this to make the flour whiter and more easily workable. All that's left is starch (simple carbohydrates) and few proteins (gluten). The nutritional contribution to the body is very low, in fact, somehow 00 flour contributes to the increase in blood sugar.
Flour 0: Slightly less refined than the previous one but which in any case has been deprived of most of its nutrients.
Type 1 flour: The first flour Mulino di Caputo produce at Val d'Orcia mill thanks to the stone grinding. Through the grinding in stone the whole grain is ground without removing any part. Through a step called sifting, that is, a sieve operation, the flour is separated according to the size of the "granules". Type 1 flour contains a greater quantity of bran and wheat germ, the parts richest in nutrients.
Type 2 flour: also known as "semi-wholemeal" flour, it is a flour characterized by large granules and a greater quantity of fibrous components and seed germ compared to the previous ones. It is a flour that has excellent nutritional characteristics and is easier to process than whole wheat flour. A good compromise for a natural bakery.
Wholwheat flour: Without a doubt, it is the best nutritionally, especially if stone-ground like ours, since the millstones working at low speed do not overheat the flour, leaving all nutrients intact. Whole wheat flour contains the whole grain in all its parts, starch, bran and wheat germ and is therefore a complete food.
Certainly at the nutritional level, type 1, type 2 and wholewheat flours win, but one important thing to keep in mind must be specified. Compared to 00 flour, type 2 ad flour contains more proteins and therefore more gluten and this should ensure greater strength, relationship between toughness and extensibility of the dough, but being structured in rather large and therefore less soluble granules, the action of the gluten is less effective. Type 1 and type 2 flours are excellent for the production of bread, pizza, desserts, baked goods ... and one of the typical characteristics of the products made with these flours is a greater hydration of the dough, a strong bouquet of perfumes, a flavor unmistakable and greater shelf life. Unfortunately for a long time now our palates have been addicted to too refined flavors but it can be remedied by starting to use, or rather, reuse the old flours! Our advice, if you have never tried them, is to start experimenting using a mixture of different flours, gradually use them in purity.
Roberto Maganuco & his Team